ISO 18605-2013 pdf free download.Packaging and the environment — Energy recovery Emballage et environnement — Récupération d’énergie.
For energy recovery, the packaging should generate energy when incinerated at conditions mentioned in Annex A. Caloriuic gain is determined for an ideal adiabatic case, at steady-state conditions and with no losses. In the real industrial system, the available thermal energy is always greater than the theoretical calorific gain. Although there are heat losses in a combustion plant, the heat recovery of the hot flue gases results in an overall thermal efficiency of 75-90 %. Thbk.1 gives values of q,, calorific gain and available thermal energy for typical packaging constituents, packaging components, packaging materials and packaging. Some of the packaging materials illustrated are not in common use, but have been chosen to demonstrate the range of possibilities.
The energy consumption for flue gas cleaning and residue handling is ofthe order of a few percent of the energy input. All waste recovery or disposal options require energy for transportation and handling. This varies according to circumstances, but is normally well below 1 MI/kg waste.
Figure B.1 is a graphic presentation of Table B.1. Calorific gain is plotted as function of q, for final temperatures of various incineration conditions. For each final temperature, a mean line is calculated according to the least square method and extended to = 0. From this statistical analysis, a practical required value for energy recovery, qnet,min,real, can be calculated for each incineration final temperature. At first, the intercept of qnet at calorific gain = 0 is calculated for each curve. Then the theoretical minimum value, qnet,min,thea,, is obtained applying the 95 % confidence limit to each intercept of Applying a safety factor of 2, commonly used in design and construction of industrial processes, on the qnet,mn.thc. the required value, qnvt,nnn,real. is calculated.
In the case of the final temperature of 850 °C, for example, the extrapolation shows that calonfic gain >0 when q,> 1,9 MJ/kg. Taking the 95 % confidence limit into account, the theoretical minimum value, qnct.min.thr, is between 1,3 and 2,5 Mi/kg. Applying a safety factor of 2, the required value, qnct,min,rcai, is set at 5 Mi/kg. In this case, the calorific gain is approximately 2 MI/kg and the calculated available thermal energy 4 MJ/kg or more. Even when the energy consumption for additional transportation and handling, flue gas cleaning and residue handling are taken into account, the available thermal energy exceeds the energy consumed by these operations.
Minimum net calorific value, qnet.mjn,real. based on these calculations for various incineration temperatures are summarized in TableL2. since the incineration temperatures differ among countries. qnet.min.real should be set for the specified conditions given in the incineration regulation of each country.
EXAMPLE 1 For EU countries, qnct,min,rI should be set at 5 Mi/Kg considering the final incineration temperature as given in Directive 2000/76/EC, i.e. a final temperature T of 850 °C.
EXAMPLE 2 For Canada, qnct,min,reai should be set at 6,8 MI/Kg considering the final incineration temperature as given in report CCME.TS/WM-TREOO3, I.e. a final temperature Ta of 1000 °C.
EXAMPLE 3 For Japan, qnemen.reat should be set at 4,6 MI/Kg considering the final incineration temperature as given in national regulation. Le. a final temperature T3 of 800 °C.ISO 18605-2013 pdf free download.