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AWS A1.1:2016 pdf free download

AWS A1.1:2016 pdf free download.Metric Practice Guide for the Welding Industry.
Vhen providing both SI units and U.S. (‘uslomarv units in AWS documeis and technical publications of other societies. the secondary system are shown to follow the primary system in brackets. For example 4() \1 Pa [70 ksi] when SI units are used as the primary system. or 70 ksi j4() M Pa] when U.S. customary values are used as the primary system. For the so—cal led sol1 conversion, the practice br showing the ‘exact” secondary system values is in parentheses. as 4X3 M Pa 70 ksi or 70 ksi (4X3 \iPa ). \ote that the so—called “Iiard’ conversions are not exact. and udgment 111(1st he applied especially where parts or components must bit, such as tbr filler metals requiring close contact when Ii.eding through no,iles. The solution to the inexactness ol’ the conversion can he accommodated by establish in tolerance ranges vli icli overlap, allowing manulhcturers to oiler standard products that are stied to accoiIUflodate both SI and U.S. customary usage. The terms mathematical conversion and design conversion may be used if a distinction must he made.
7.1 Rules for Converting aiid Rounding. Converting and rounding are necessary only during a transition period. In mantiflicturing practice, this occurs most frequently when designing is done in SI units and tibricaiion must be done in conventional units. ilie necessity for conversion and rounding disappears when all steps can be done in one system.
Exact conversion 1mm one system to another usual lv resti Its in numbers that are inconvenient to use. Also, the intended precision is exaggerated when the conversion results in moi-e decimal places haii are necessary.
The degree ol’ accuracy of’ the coin erted number is based on the inended or necessary precision of the product. The precision must he deterniined by the designer or user. The guidelines given herein may tlieii he applied to arrive at appropriate numerical equi alents.
Two rounding methods are presented to assist in defining the intended or necessary precision. The first Rounding Method A, described in may result in a converted value that is less than or greater than the original value by up to 5%. This could reduce the intended precision. The second Rounding Method B. described in, may result in a converted value that is greater than 5%. This will assure the converted value will be within the original value but vil I likely be greater and exceed Uie intended precision. Only the person making the conversion can define what method il I be acceptable in terms of (lesired precision. For example if converting electrode tip—to—work distance in GMAW or travel speed. Method A would prohat ly he selected.
7.2 Inch to Millinietcr Conversion. Exact conversion from inches to millimeters often results in unnecessarily long decimal numbers. AWS A1.1:2016 pdf free download.

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