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AWS B1.11M/B1.11:2015 pdf free download

AWS B1.11M/B1.11:2015 pdf free download.Guide for the Visual Examination of Welds.
5. Weld Surface Conditions
5.1 General. This clause is concerned only with discontinuities. which may or may not be classed as defects (rejeciable) depending on requirements of individual specifications or codes. The intent is informational and instructional, and meant to assist in the identification of discontinuities. Discontinuities can occur at any location in the weld. Visual examination after welding is limited to the surface condition of the weld. Discovery of subsurface discorninuities requires the visual examination be supplemented by a volumetric nondestructive test method such as ultrasonic or radiographic examination.
A discontinuity is an interruption of the typical structure of a material, such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical, or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect. Discontinuities are rejectable only if they exceed specification requirements in terms of type. size, distribution, or location. A defect is a discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumulated etTect (for example, total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. The term defect designates rejectahility.
Weld and base-metal discontinuities of specific types are more common when certain welding processes and joint details are used. Attendant conditions, such as high restraint and limited access to portions of a weld joint. may lead to a higher than normal incidence of weld or base-metal discontinuities. For example, highly restrained weld joints are more prone to cracking.
Each general type of discontinuity is discussed in detail in this clause (see also Table I and Figures 2 through 7). Other documents may use different terminology for some of these discontinuities: however, whenever possible, the approved AWS terminology, as tound in AWS A3.OMIA3.O. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions. Including Ten;s.cJr Adhesive Bonding. Brazing. Soldering. Thermal Cutting. and Thermal Spraying, should be used to eliminate confusion. An example of additional terminology occurs in AWS D1.l/Dl. IM, Structural Welding Code—Steel. There, fusion-type discontinuity is a general term which is used to describe a number of discontinuities, including: slag inclusions, incomplete fusion, incomplete joint penetration, and similar elongated discontinuities in fusion welds.
5.2 Porosity Iscc Table 1(1)1.2 Porosity is a cavity-type discontinuity formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in a thermal-spray deposit. The discontinuity formed is generally spherical and may be elongated. Two common causes of porosity are contamination and insufficient shielding during welding.AWS B1.11M/B1.11:2015 pdf free download.

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