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AWS B1.10M/B1.10:2016 pdf free download
AWS B1.10M/B1.10:2016 pdf free download.Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds.
There are two basic classifications of the penetrant method, both using a similar principle. One uses a visible dye and the other uses a fluorescent dye that is only visible while exposed to ultraviolet light. Visible penetran is usually red in color to provide a contrast against the white developer background. Normal white light is usually sufficient to view any indications present.
Fluorescent penetrants produces a brilliant yellow-green indication against a dark background when viewed in a darkened area under a black (ultraviolet) light source. The fluorescent method is more sensitive than the visible dye method. Penetrants glow under ultraviolet light, making indications readily apparent to the technician. Manufacturers adjust sensitivity by adding fluorescent particles and brighteners into increasingly tenacious penetrants that resist overcleaning.
There are three different types of penetrants used with both the visible and fluorescent methods classified by how they are removed from the test surface. These are solvent removable, water washable, and post-emulsifiable.
Solvent removable penetrants are formulated to be removed with a solvent using a hand-wiping technique. They are very portable and often used for on-site examinations.
Water washable penetrants contain emulsifiers that make the oil-based penetrants soluble in water. This method requires a source of water, a means of disposing of the rinse, and some means for drying the article.
Post-emulsifiable peneirants are not water soluble. Post-emulsifiable penetrants are formulated such that a separate emulsifier must be used. The use of this emulsifier enables clean water to then be used to rinse the emulsified excess penetrani from the surface of the test piece. Post-emulsifiable penetrants are used when detection of very minute or wide, shallow discontinuities is desired.
Penetrant examination is widely applicable on ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials, but it is particularly useful on nonmagnetic materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and austenitic stainless steel where magnetic particle examination cannot be used. It is also useful for locating cracks or other discontinuities which may cause leaks in containers and pipes.
An interesting example of liquid penetrant testing is filling or brushing the inside of a container with penetrant and checking the outside for leaks (see 5.7). This procedure detects some through-wall discontinuities.
Liquid peneirant examination is relafively inexpensive. The process is simple and operators find little difficulty in learning to apply it properly. The success of liquid penetrant examination methods depends on the experience and visual acuity of the inspector. In addition, the examination should be performed in accordance with a written procedure. AWS B1.10M/B1.10:2016 pdf free download.
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