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AWS G2.1M/G2.1:2012 pdf free download

AWS G2.1M/G2.1:2012 pdf free download.Guide for the Joining of Wrought Nickel-Based Alloys.
Any of the nickel alloys have good toughness at extremely low, or cryogenic, temperatures. Generally speaking. nickel and its alloys can be readily formed and fabricated. The nickel alloys are used because of their resistance to severe environmental conditions and because they have attractive mechanical properties. The commercially pure nickel alloys are almost pure nickel with minor additions of one or more additional elements. Nickel 2(X) is the most common alloy of this group. The commercially pure nickel alloys are used extensively in applications that take advantage of their electronic or magnetic characteristics, such as in transducers and as plated pins for printed circuit board connectors. The nickel alloys are also used in applications utilizing their corrosion resistance, such as in the handling of hot concentrated caustic soda and dry chlorine. Most of these applications involve temperatures below 315°C 16()0’Fi. For applications above 315°C 16(N)°F1, a low carbon grade of nickel Alloy 201 is used because it does not sufTer embrittlement by graphite precipitation during exposure at these higher temperawres.
The nickel-copper group of nickel alloys generally has the ratio of two parts nickel and one part copper, typified by alloy 400. These alloys are only used at relatively low temperatures because they have poor high-temperature oxidation resistance. The nickelcopper alloys are used extensively in sea water applications because of their excellent resistance to corrosion, cavitation, and erosion. Other significant applications include propeller shafting, marine tixtures and fasteners, valves and pumps, chemical process equipment, process vessels and piping, and heat exchangers. Like the commercially pure nickel grades. they are readily fabricated, have excellent ductility, and can be formed easily into a variety of shapes.
The nickel-molybdenum alloys have relatively high levels of molybdenum that give increased resistance to the corrosive effects of strong reducing acids (nonoxidizing) such as hydrochloric acid.
Nickel-chromium, nickel-chromium-iron, and nickel-iron-chromium alloys are a very versatile collection of alloys that are used in a wide cross section of industries and applications and over a broad spectrum of temperatures. The nickel- chromium-iron alloys are used in a variety of industries, from chemical processing and nuclear power components operating at relatively low temperatures. to high temperature applications in turbine engines and heat treating equipment. These alloys are slightly more difficult to fabricate than steels because of’ their higher strengths. The nickel-iron-chromium alloys are typically used in oxidizing and carburizing applications because of their resistance to these environments and their high strength. Typical applications include furnace components, heat exchangers and process piping, electric range heating-element sheathing. extruded tubing for ethylene and steam methane reforming furnaces, and chemical process equipment.
The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys have excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of severe environments that range from highly oxidizing to moderately nonoxidizing (reducing) environments. AWS G2.1M/G2.1:2012 pdf free download.

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