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CSA SPE 2254-2019 pdf free download

CSA SPE 2254-2019 pdf free download.Guide to wood chip fuel : Characteristics , supply , storage , and procurement.
5.2.5 Other sources of wood chips
Other potential sources of wood chips include forest thinnings, FireSmart treatments, right-of-ways, road sites, stand conversion, disease- and fire-affected stands, and waste wood recycling facilities. With proper size reduction, screening, and storage, these sources can be used to produce wood chips that meet CAN/CSA-lSO 17225 Part 4.
5.2.6 Aggregators, wholesalers, and brokers
Wood chips can also be supplied by intermediaries, wholesalers, brokers, and aggregators. These companies source the wood chips from the aforementioned sources and sell it to the market. This Is a relatively new trends but the significance of the aggregators and brokers in the wood chip fuel supply chain is growing. It is highly likely that commodization of wood chip fuel will lead to establishment of spot markets and change the wood chip fuel market from local and informal to global and commercial in the future.
5.3 Non-suitable sources of wood chips: Heritage piles
In certain jurisdictions in Canada, such as British Columbia, Alberta, and Manitoba, sawmills are required to dispose of bark and sawdust that are not used internally In the year they are produced. In jurisdictions such as Saskatchewan and Eastern provinces, the more common practice is for the mills to store the excess residues in piles. Heritage piles have accumulated over years of this practise and are typically comprised of bark, sawdust, or chips or a mix of all. The material can be sitting outdoor for up to 50 years.
The wood in the heritage piles is typically partially decomposed and wet. The moisture can be as high as 65%. The quality of the wood depends on the age of the pile. Heritage piles are built over many years, so certain parts of the pile can be older than others; therefore, different parts can have different moisture content and wood quality. These piles likely contain non-wood material like metals and rocks as they are not supervised and anyone can dump waste into the pile. The wood reclaimed from these piles cannot meet the wood chips fuel quality specifications of CAN/CSA-lSO 17225 Part 4.
5.4 Comparison of wood chips with hog fuel
Wood chips (see Figures 7 a) and b)j are typically produced in chippers. There are several chipper models, such as mobile chippers, vertical feeding, horizontal feeding, and drum chippers. Each one has its own characteristics and produce different qualities. In the forest industry, wood hogs or grinders are also used to reduce the size of the woody blomass. Woody material produced in a wood hog is called hog fuel, which contains bark and varies largely in size and shape (see Figures 8 a), b), and c)J. Due to these characteristics, hog fue’ may not meet the wood chip fuel quality specifications of CAN/CSA-ISO 17225 Part 4 without further processing. Hog fuel is a very generic term and should be assessed under the characteristics of CAN/CSA-lSO 17225 Part 4 before using it as a fuel. Table 5 is a comparison of wood chip fuel and hog fuel.CSA SPE 2254-2019 pdf free download.

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