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IEEE Std 2778-2020 pdf free download

IEEE Std 2778-2020 pdf free download.IEEE Guide for Solar Power Plant Grounding for Personal Protection.
grounding system at one end. Some designs also continue a run of grounding along the row of panels either above or below grade.
The size of a typical SPP makes it impractical to install a grounding mesh sufficiently dense to maintain a near-equipotential plane across the entire facility or to install crushed rock surfacing throughout the entire facility. The large opcn areas generally require lcss grounding (similar to traditional power plant design). but it is imperative to pay attention to step and touch voltages in the vicinity of all exposed conductive equipment. A design model that can account for this wide variation in grounding system characteristics and requirements is necessary to design a grounding system that adequately protects personnel without being prohibitively costly.
4.1 Differences among SPPs, traditional power plants, and substations
V hue there are some similanties between Sl’Pgroundung systems and traditional power plants and sunstatuons. there are more significant ditli.rences. Utility-scale SPP grounding systems can often extend over hundreds or thousands of acres where substations and traditional plants arc typically much smaller.
The general practice in a substation or plant grounding design is to produce a near-equipotential plane through the facility, or at least around grounded equipment. Using a relatively dense mesh, this is achieved to an acceptable level as determined by examining mesh, touch, and step voltages within the grounding system area.
Substations are small enough that grid spacing on the order of 5 m to IS m (15 11 to 5011) is typical and presents a reasonable expense for the project. Similarly, applying an insulating surface layer around equipment and throughout the station is common practice. Since the total area is relatively sniall. analysis can be performed by most grounding software packages, and in some instances hand calculations, to provide acceptable results with relative ease.
Traditional power plants often have large rebar-reinforced concrete foundations or buildings that equalize the voltages in the vicinity of major equipment. Auxiliary equipment is grounded in similar fashion as in a substation environment, and the power plant is typically connected to a substation that follows typical substation grounding design. Many traditional plants have large areas where there is no equipment to touch which allows for less grounding in some areas. While power plants arc often larger than substations, the grounding design and analysis is usually not significantly more difficult and can be handled readily by software.IEEE Std 2778-2020 pdf free download.

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